Improving quality of pharmacy students training for pharmaceutical supply chain in the context of international integration

MPP. NGUYEN HUU KHANH QUAN (Head of Clinical Pharmacy Department Faculty of Pharmacy, Nguyen Tat Thanh University) MBA. HOANG HUU TIEN MBA. BUI QUANG TRUNG (Communication and Marketing Department, Nguyen Tat Thanh University)

The globalization process and the 4th industrial revolution are setting new requirements for health workers in general and pharmacists in particular. Hence, there are new standards for not only higher education but also pharmaceutical field. The main aim of this study is to apply the CDIO training methodology to enhance a target-oriented training program for pharmaceutical students to develop practical skills.

The findings from this study are the basis for education development and application for the training of pharmaceutical students according to CDIO in the context of international integration in Vietnam. It is critical that pharmaceutical students have the thorough preparation to meet the demands of the industries after graduation.

Keywords: CDIO, Pharmacy education, Pharmaceutical supply chain.

1. Introduction

In educational activities, the educational program approach plays an important role, helping to orient all components of the educational program: From proposing goals, program standards, identifying subjects, activities to content selection, teaching methods, organization, testing and evaluation of results. There are many approaches. This study chooses the CDIO empirical approach as an approach to the capacity to require Vietnamese pharmacy education in the context of integration to meet social needs. Capacity is to say the ability to perform, are to work, practice, practical applications, not to know and understand.

Of course "act", done here must be associated with consciousness and attitude, must have knowledge and skills, not do it in a "mechanical", "blind" way [8]. Technical education is the main channel to promote national economic development with engineers with technical qualifications or business management fields. In developing countries, CDIO is actively introduced, applied and innovated, the process of technical education reform is enhanced, a potential for the development of science and technology. For universities in developing countries: Conceive - Design - Implementation - Operations is a framework of educational thoughts and methods that guide technical education reform[10].

The advancement of medical and scientific technology and the separation between medical practice and clinics have brought about a tremendous change in the pharmaceutical industry. Let pharmacists respond appropriately to such needs: Students who aspire to become pharmacists must have basic knowledge/skills; respect moral values when practicing, knowledgeable about medical knowledge, gain professional practice skills; capable of detecting and solving problems according to the social movement[7].

The determination of the wide participation of stakeholders in the implementation of CDIO is really necessary of the university in training according to the discipline of "output standard", the output of the CDIO approach focus on the system of competency needs of each learner (Figure 1). Speaking of capacity is to mention the ability to perform, is to know how to do, practice, apply practicality and not know and understand. Of course the action (doing) here must be linked to the sense and attitude, must have knowledge and skills: contribute to creating valuable results for society and community; help individuals meet the requirements of a wide and complex context; They may not be important to professionals, but are important for all pharmacists when working[8].

Training high-quality pharmacists in Vietnam to meet the labor market for the development of the pharmaceutical industry is now an urgent need. The operational risks in the domestic pharmaceutical supply chain related to pharmacist human resources still present many threats, rapid industrialization in pharmaceuticals, privatization in the retail sector, to meet the increase. Economic growth, there has been an increase in demand for pharmaceutical human resources, lack of strict control from management agencies due to the shortage of human resources affecting product quality.

Vietnamese enterprises have a low ability to participate in research due to lack of finance and high quality pharmaceutical human resources affecting competitiveness. Human resources with domestic and international pharmaceutical and legal expertise do not keep up with the development of the domestic and international pharmaceutical industry both in quantity and quality[6]. However, the requirements for academic capacity building and strategy development should be taken seriously. Collecting data from stakeholders of the workforce, identifying specific needs of the country, and using new methods in training to develop comprehensive education is considered the first step to improve the quality of pharmaceutical education in Vietnam[9].

Pharmacists are responsible for ensuring the quality of pharmaceuticals/medicines supplied to the patients as per the government policies/regulations, and patient pharmaceutical education including counseling of the patients. A pharmacist is one of the people in the health care team, and he plays a key role in providing quality healthcare and pharmaceutical care to the public. They are experts in medicines and use their clinical expertise, together with formulation, quality control, practical knowledge, to ensure the safe supply and use of medicines by the public[5].

So, we have to update and trained to meet the changing demands. For example, in hospital pharmacy, a pharmacist can be trained in the filling, outpatient dispensing, total parenteral nutrition preparation, working in satellite pharmacy units and cytotoxic drugs handing. Such training would definitely diversify pharmacist's skills. Allowing pharmacists to work in a number of contributions to the pharmacy services. So, the training program is an essential element in order to maximize the pharmacist's role in the progress of upgrading pharmacy services[4]. 

bieu 1

2. Methodology

Data will be collected to conduct interviews and design questionnaires and surveyed by 500 respondents[2]: 50 people are experts in important positions. Study to email or visit directly at the business/hospital (pharmaceutical companies, pharmaceutical companies, distribution companies, community pharmacies, and government agencies). Study emails and distribute surveys directly to 250 people including lecturers and pharmacists participating in pharmaceutical jobs and 200 final-year students, which enrolled in the Pharmacy program. The study period is from September 2018 to June 2019.

Design questionnaire: This questionnaire reference sources: Guide to Design and Development Training Program standard output[1]; What skills do you prepare for future employment and how satisfied are you? QS World University Rankings[3]; Seven-Star Pharmacist Concept by World Health Organization[5]. Research has suggested that the observed variables labor market need for pharmacy students after graduation (Table 1).

bang 1

The questionnaire consists of 2 parts: Part 1: Personal information; Part 2: The main content consists of 16 items to assess the current level and the desired level (Table 1). Data analysis method: Study using the descriptive statistical method with comparison indicators: frequency, medium to conduct analysis and evaluation of the current level and desired level. from stakeholders on employment positions in practice linking knowledge-skills - attitudes in training for pharmaceutical students.

Result and Discussion

The findings from this study are the basis for the science of applying the CDIO method to pharmacist training universities in Vietnam. The total number of questionnaires collected is 500; of which, 385 valid votes, reaching 77%. There were 115 invalid questionnaires (equivalent to 23%) because respondents did not answer fully (delete the answer or choose only one answer for all questions) according to the observed variables (Table 1).

Stakeholders involved in the survey include: Pharmaceutical experts in important positions directors of pharmaceutical companies or heads of departments of pharmacy in hospitals have 44 survey questionnaires (11.4%); final year students enrolled in the Pharmacy program had 100 survey questionnaires (26%); lecturers and pharmacists working in the pharmaceutical supply chain have 241 survey questionnaires (62.6%).

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Figure 2, personal qualities and pharmaceutical industry of pharmaceutical students and educational customers are evaluated by factors: Resilience & dealing with conflict, Integrity, Corporate Social Responsibility, Problem-solving. The research results show that at the present level, these factors of the surveyed subjects only reach the level of Understanding/explanation while their desired level is at the Applicable/Applying level. The results showed that these factors were significantly different (p-value <5%) at the present level and expected level.

In addition to the expertise of the pharmaceutical field and the professionalism of pharmacists, society and professional associations, expect Pharmacists to maintain high standards of professional ethics while practicing. The student is aware of the nature of morality and professional ethics; discriminating law and morality; recognize the dilemmas of ethics, professional ethics, master the steps to resolve and know how to deal with the dilemmas of morality in life and work in an appropriate and responsible manner; identify basic standards and standards of pharmaceutical practice ethics.

Pharmacists practice with a sense of responsibility, honesty, culture, and practice for the values of the industry, for the safety of people, for the benefit of the social community. Communication skills are one of the top two skills of a pharmacist along with teamwork skills. These are two skills that employers often complain about when talking about new graduates. Pharmacists who are able to communicate and work well are better than others in terms of technology. Successful pharmacists must be able to communicate effectively with supervisors, colleagues and the community (patients).

To improve the quality of pharmaceutical training, teaching-learning skills (communicating with patients), asking medical history, asking a history and making a medical record) must be applied regularly and continuously at the pharmacy training schools. Pharmaceutical training programs at universities must provide basic concepts about the communication of health workers, the role of communication with practicing pharmacists; Some basic techniques for compiling professional materials, especially those used for writing letters, writing reports in the field of Health and Pharmacy; Some techniques used in effective presentations; some basic issues about poster design and the role of designing posters in presenting the results of scientific research in the industry.

Today, more than ever, universities require their students to be able to work in groups. Determining the importance of teamwork skills in pharmaceutical university is a reflection of the factual needs of the pharmaceutical industry in recent years. Pharmacists and employers are the ones who set these requirements and they not only employ skilled professionals but also know how to work in teams.

Teamwork is becoming increasingly important, students must be educated as soon as they sit in a school chair: current pharmacists must solve extremely complex problems; More than ever, many factors need to be considered in future practice; The need to expand members' understanding of different areas; Cooperation between officials and multinational activities has become more and more popular; The requirement to reduce the time to bring products to market, and the patient's waiting and the application of specialized techniques simultaneously; Operate according to project type more and more at companies.

In general, there are differences between the current level and the level of desire for skills in training for pharmacy students. This result also shows that the level of pharmacy students after graduation compared to the desired level of employment in the pharmaceutical supply in Vietnam. From this result, universities provide training with the necessary skills training for pharmaceutical students that are compatible with the reality that society now wants. Pharmacy schools need to have a strategy - plan - actions for the pathway of pharmacy students.

CDIO's goal is to educate students who are able to master deeper knowledge of technical fundamentals, leading in creating new products, processes, and systems, and understanding the importance of and the strategic impact of research and development technology on society. From active participation with stakeholders, Universities listen to each request, analyze the requirements and change the training from traditional learning to active, practical learning. In fact, Universities received a lot of comments about its effectiveness in improving student-centered teaching and learning. In addition, helping Universities validate the skills development of students with social awareness.

3. Conclusion

The research may find that the stakeholders (business) and training organizations need to establish and develop relationships with each other to bring benefits to all parties. Business establishments is a great practice environment for students and faculty to study, perform, applied research and practice the skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Training facilities for pharmaceutical supply chain should be proactive in the process of training to meet the increasing needs of high-quality human resources.

Universities need to match the training programs of Pharmacists in developed countries. Parties should implement innovative educational policies of Vietnam in the context of the current international integration. For example, the approach to developing the program with CDIO requirements: pharmacy students being trained to achieve the qualities and capabilities identified in the practical training program according to professional competency standards, Promoting the entrepreneurial spirit of students and students and equipping students with knowledge and skills in starting a business during their study time at schools; creating a favorable environment to support students and students to form and realize ideas and start-up projects, contributing to creating jobs for students after graduation; creating a strong and substantive change in the quality of training, scientific research, and technology transfer of the higher education system to meet the needs of human resources; contribute to improving labor quality and productivity, promoting creative.

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Trưởng Bộ môn Dược lâm sàng, Khoa Dược, Trường Đại học Nguyễn Tất Thành



Phòng Truyền thông - Marketing, Trường Đại học Nguyễn Tất Thành


Quá trình toàn cầu hóa ngày nay và cuộc cách mạng công nghiệp lần thứ 4 đang đặt ra những yêu cầu mới đối với người lao động trong ngành chăm sóc sức khỏe nói chung và Dược sĩ nói riêng. Do đó, cũng đặt ra các yêu cầu mới cho việc giáo dục đại học nói chung và giáo dục lĩnh vực Dược nói riêng.

Thành phần chính của nghiên cứu này là ứng dụng phương pháp đào tạo CDIO xây dựng chương trình đào tạo có mục tiêu phù hợp với đầu ra cho sinh viên ngành Dược, để phát triển khả năng kết nối với hoạt động làm việc thực tế. Những phát hiện từ nghiên cứu này là cơ sở cho khoa học phát triển giáo dục và ứng dụng đào tạo sinh viên ngành Dược theo CDIO, trong bối cảnh hội nhập quốc tế tại Việt Nam. Chúng tôi muốn sinh viên học ngành Dược biết và có thể làm những gì họ muốn để đáp ứng mong muốn của doanh nghiệp và xã hội sau khi tốt nghiệp.

Từ khóa: CDIO, giáo dục ngành Dược, chuỗi cung ứng dược phẩm.